From elsewhere it’s been created the “dark energy” to justify observations showing galaxies with relative speed growing.

But why the attribute dark ? Because this “substance” can't be observed if not by the effects that it produces. But also an electromagnetic radiation with highest frequency couldn’t show itself to the ordinary instruments of measure. And then why to dislocate this energy where it’s much useful to explain unusual gravitational effects, when it would be much more logic to think it uniformely distributed in all the universe, being probably these unknown effects visible also by an hypothetical observer standing in our Hubble’s horizon ?

E.M. radiation is the only known thing that can apply pressure on a surface in empty space.

I think to a normal 3d space that, in symmetric conditions, is perfectly balanced, being set up by transversal sinusoidal waves, symmetrically polarized, interfering with opposite directions and same speed, size and frequency. These waves would generate standing ones without propagation of energy, but only potential one. We would have, in a normal 3d space, a vibrant frame, but when a mass would break this vacuum symmetry some waves trains could spread transporting motion quantity and angular moment as electromagnetic waves do and causing a radiant pressure on masses surfaces. This phenomenon could exists since from the size of matter “fine structure”, but not instrumentally visible if not when waves length is close to the gamma rays one. Then not sub atomic particles, but only one kind of matter swinging with different frequencies and only one force.

This is a possible explanation of Casimir effect, because in this kind of “energetic space" a mass would be compressed and two masses would be pushed one towards the other.

The same force could explain strong interaction between quarks in atomic nucleus where waves length is smaller, but higher frequency and so energy.

In the same way gravity would be a compressive force and movement of galaxies, stars and planets, as sub atomic particles, would be the result of not compensated Poynting vectors in a kind of “hydrodynamic space".

By the other side a single object with equatorial diameter bigger than, about, 200 Km assumes, not for the chance, a spherical configuration, because the sphere is the geometric volume better balanced by external forces (as a sphere submerged in the water). Probably, in the origin, it was a disorganized quantity of matter that surrounding universe has conformed to the spherical configuration, like a press.

In this kind of space every object

*“floats or proceeds of rectilinear uniform movement, since an external cause disrupts this state”*The external cause could be, for example, a second object that moves a volume of balancing space in analogy with Archimede’s law.

As in mechanical sciences, when the polygon of forces is not closed, the two objects are pushed one towards the other and not collide only if they have sufficient motion quantity to balance the thrust of surrounding space.

The orbital motion would be the consequence of the system rebalancing like electron around atomic nucleus does.

I propose some simple and much approximated gravitational models for some internal planets of solar system and Iupiter, to better explain these concepts.

Let’s considerate the system Earth – Sun and suppose to send away Earth from “Roche’s limit ray” of the Sun (the minimum orbital ray that Earth could have had in the past without be destroyed by gravity of the sun), since to the actual orbit.

Dates available are the following ones :

• MT : Earth’s mass = 5,976 x 10^24Kg ;

• RS : Sun’s equatorial ray = 700.000 km = 700.000.000 m ;

• MS : Sun’s mass nearly 330.000 MT = 1,97 x 10^30Kg ;

• G : universal gravitational constant = 6,67259 x 10-11 m^3 Kg^-1 sec^-2;

• RLim. : Roche’s limit ray = 2,86 x RS nearly 2.000.000.000 m ;

• Rm. : actual medium Earth’s orbital ray = 150.000.000 Km = 150.000.000.000 m ;

• SP : “Planck’s space” = 1,616 x 10^-35m

Supposing Earth’s mass concentrated in a point and dividing the distance Rm. - RLim. in Planck’s spaces (the minimum dimension of a volume that theoretically can contain energy) we obtain : np = Rm. - RLim./ SP = 9,15 x 10^45 that are the quantums of energy aging against the sending away of the Earth from the Sun.

Then radiant energy is : E = np x h x v, with h = 6,626 x 10^-34 Joule sec Planck’s constant and ν frequency of radiation.

The variation of potential energy is : DU = G x MS x MT x (1/ RLim. – 1/ Rm.) = 3,87 x 10^35Joule, so making equal the two terms we obtain v = 6,38 x 10^22 Hz, that is a frequency in the share of spectre of gamma rays.

With the same method let’s try with system Sun – Venus :

• MV : Venus’s mass nearly 81,5 % MT = 4,87 x 10^24Kg ;

• RS : Sun’s equatorial ray = 700.000 km = 700.000.000 m ;

• MS : Sun’s mass nearly 330.000 MT = 1,97 x 10^30Kg ;

• G : universal gravitational constant = 6,67259 x 10-11 m^3 Kg^-1 sec^-2;

• RLim. : Roche’s limit ray = 2,86 x RS nearly 2.000.000.000 m ;

• Rm. : actual medium Venus’s orbital ray nearly 108.000.000 Km = 108.000.000.000 m ;

• SP : “Planck’s space” = 1,616 x 10^-35m

Variation of potential energy is : DU = G x MS x MV x (1/ RLim. – 1/ Rm.) = 3,14 x 10^35 Joule.

Let us divide distance Rm. - RLim. in Planck’s spaces : np = Rm. - RLim./ SP = 6,56 x 10^45.

Then frequency of radiation is v = 7,22 x 10^22 Hz.

Then let’s try with system Sun Mars :

• MM : Mars’s mass nearly 10,74 % MT = 6,42 x 10^23Kg ;

• RS : Sun’s equatorial ray = 700.000 km = 700.000.000 m ;

• MS : Sun’s mass nearly 330.000 MT = 1,97 x 10^30 Kg ;

• G : universal gravitational constant = 6,67259 x 10-11 m^3 Kg^-1 sec^-2;

• RLim. : Roche’s limit ray = 2,86 x RS nearly 2.000.000.000 m ;

• Rm. : actual medium Mars’s orbital ray nearly 230.000.000 Km = 230.000.000.000 m ;

• SP : “Planck’s space” = 1,616 x 10^-35m

Variation of potential energy is : DU = G x MS x MM x (1/ RLim. – 1/ Rm.) = 3,2 x 10^34 Joule.

Let us divide distance Rm. - RLim. in Planck’s spaces : np = Rm. - RLim./ SP = 1,41 x 10^46

In this case frequency is v = 3,42 x 10^21 Hz.

At last let’s analyze system Sun Iupiter. As usual, dates avalaible are :

• MI : Iupiter’s mass nearly 1,90 x 10^27Kg ;

• RS : Sun’s equatorial ray = 700.000 km = 700.000.000 m ;

• MS : Sun’s mass nearly 330.000 MT = 1,97 x 10^30Kg ;

• G : universal gravitational constant = 6,67259 x 10-11 m^3 Kg^-1 sec^-2;

• RLim. : Roche’s limit ray = 2,86 x RS nearly 2.000.000.000 m ;

• Rm. : actual medium Iupiter’s orbital ray nearly 778.330.000 Km = 778.330.000.000 m ;

• SP : “Planck’s space” = 1,616 x 10 ^-35m

Variation of potential energy is : DU = G x MS x MI x (1/ RLim. – 1/ Rm.) = 1,2 x 10^38 Joule.

Let us divide distance Rm. - RLim. in Planck’s spaces : np = Rm. - RLim./ SP = 4,8 x 10^46.

Frequency of radiation is v = 3,77 x 10^24 Hz.

Telescope LAT, on board of Fermi satellite, is able to detect photons from 20 MeV to over 300 GeV, with order of size of frequencies since over 10^25 Hz.

We can resume all this with relation : n h ν = DU with obvious meaning of symbols.

Stefano Gusman

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