mercoledì 4 aprile 2012

The "Opera phantom"

The Ides of March of 2012 A.D. Carlo Ereditato, scientific director of the Opera experiment conducted between CERN and Gran Sasso underground laboratory, decided to resign as part of the controversy arising from the disclosure of superluminal neutrinos, subsequently disproved by the discovery of systematic measurement errors caused by defects of mechanical instrumentation.
The same ICARUS experiment, led by Nobel Prize Carlo Rubbia, has "revised down" the neutrinos advantage (allegedly) over the light from about 60 ns to 0.3 ns + - 4ns +- 9ns of uncertainty on the measurement of "time flight "(1 ns = 1 nano second = 10 ^ -9 sec).The official statement of the spokesman of ICARUS was: "Neutrinos speed is compatible with the light one."
However Marius asks for Ereditato honors of war.
What does it mean, in fact, "Neutrinos speed is compatible with the light one." ? Greater, equal, less?
Neutrino rest mass is estimated around 0.05 eV/c^2. Special Relativity prevents any particle mass to match the light speed. Infact rest mass/energy (E=mc^2) of an accelerated massive particle increases with the Lorenz factor that, at stretching of particle speed “u” to that of light c, diverges, tending asymptotically to infinity.Having been measured a temporal difference having order of magnitude equal to the billionth of a second (10 ^ -9 sec) on a "time of flight" having a magnitude equal to thousandths of a second, the flight time should have been measured with an accuracy until the ninth digit after the decimal point (0.00 sec at least.Unfortunately, 'with existing available technology (satellite triangulation GPS), measuring distances has immeasurably less precision (the most' twenty cm). But since the gap on the flight time for neutrinos benefit was evaluated for a part in a billion, the ratio between the values of the neutrinos and light speed squares (the “beta” in the denominator of the Lorenz formula), should be done by expressing the two speeds in nano meters on nano seconds at least, which is nine decimal digits after the decimal point, so as to obtain a realistic value of the relativistic (or "apparent") neutrinos mass/energy and, above all, of the charged particles generated them in the accelerators.The delay of Icarus "only" 0.3 ns +-4ns +- 9ns (though still "in favor" of neutrinos), still leaves a large randomness of uncertainty about what the neutrinos have approached the speed of light (if you wish leave it "untouched" the RS that means that the speed is still below).The question is not "futile", but of merit.Infact if neutrinos had a speed closest to the light one would have an apparent mass tending rapidly to diverge, being the curve of the Lorenz factor steep for values ​​of the ratio u2 /c^2 tending to unity.Constructing the Lorenz factor curve by point, is observed that, placed, for example c = 300.000.000,000.000.000 m/sec and u = 299.999.999,000 m/sec, range applies 387.298,310 which multiplied by the estimated neutrino rest mass is 19.364,916 eV/c^2. For u = 299.999.999,999.990.000, m = 193.404,531 eV/c^2. For u = 299.999.999,999.000, m = 607.575 eV/c^2, and so on.How much, then, an accelerated massive elementary particle can come close to the light speed without increasing its relativistic mass/energy in a inconsistent way with the known physics laws?Neutrinos are produced in a cyclotron accelerating, via magnetic fields, protons beams impacting against fixed targets, which produce pions beams "decading" into muons. These and, subsequently, their "decay products", neutrinos, are subsequently addressed, with appropriate inclination (about 3.26 °), which takes into account the Earth's surface curvature, towards detectors placed 730 km away. Therefore, if to neutrinos is impressed such an acceleration to come closest to light speed, the protons and the subsequent reaction products that generate them (pions and muons) should issue synchrotron radiation.
None of this.

In summary:

1. Massive particles travel with closest speed to that of the light but, albeit slightly, lower.

2. The particles themselves, until proven otherwise, will be detected earlier than they would have been detected photons beam along the same (?) theoretical journey into vacuum space.

3. However neutrinos speed can not 'have been too much close to light speed cause the theoretical values ​​of the apparent masses of the particles that create them are higher than those observed experimentally.

So what?

The MT provides a possible explanation.

Stefano Gusman

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