In one of the first version of General Relativity appeared the

*cosmologic constant*“Λ” that Einstein, in a first moment, had put into his equations to prevent the collapse of his static universe. A kind of “intrinsic engine” that had to compensate gravitational attraction that, otherwise, would had driven to instability and collapse of his model of universe. Afterwards Hubble’s (not the telescope) observations, showing expanding universe, drove him to say that cosmologic constant was been the greatest error of his life. Ironically the same Hubble (the telescope this time) not only has shown recession of galaxies, but also its growing up speed. Really the cosmologic constant that came back through the window. Someone identifies it as

*“zero point”*energy or

*“vacuum energy”*. But what really is it ? The concept is that vacuum can’t be completely “empty”, but must to have a minimum contents of energy because, in the opposite way, would be violated the basic principle of Quantum Mechanics, that is Heisemberg’s uncertainty principle :

*”it’s impossibile to determinate with precision position and quantum motion of an elementary particle”.*Yet in the atomic models electron is described as a probalistic scattering of electric negative charge around the nucleus, expressed by Shroedinger’s equation, according with its double nature wave-particle (as another elementary particle : the photon). Without energy in vacuum would be possible to “photograph” one of these “shifty” entity, that is theorically impossibile ; but E = mc^2, so to have energy it is necessary to have mass, therefore begins to play antimatter. In vacuum continuously are created couples electron – positron (the antimaterial homologous of electron) that annihilating produce energy as in Feynman diagram showing high energy photons (in gamma rays frequency ) that interacts in “inelastic way” , also without matter, generating exactly a couple e+ e- that, annihilating, produce energy with the form of a new couple of photons :

http://ulisse.sissa.it/chiediAUlisse/domanda/2006/Ucau060415d002/

But how many energy is necessary to justify the relative acceleration between galaxies observed in the last time?Let’s start out with a simple example and let’s calculate, with Newton’s law, the “gravitational job” necessary to move the eartly orbit around the Sun from an initial position to the actual one.Dates available are the following ones :

• MT : Earth’s mass = 5,976 x 10^24Kg ;

• RS : Sun’s equatorial ray = 700.000 km = 700.000.000 m ;

• MS : Sun’s mass nearly 330.000 MT = 1,97 x 10^30Kg ;

• G : universal gravitational constant = 6,67259 x 10-11 m^3 Kg^-1 sec^-2;

• RLim. : Roche’s limit ray = 2,86 x RS nearly 2.000.000.000 m ;

• Rm. : actual medium Earth’s orbital ray = 150.000.000 Km = 150.000.000.000 m.

*= 1,616 x 10^-35 m is*

*“Planck’s space*(minimum dimension of a volume in wich, theoretically, can be contained energy). So results that n is the number of cilindric

*“volumes/energy”*with height = SP (considering gravitational “pipeflows”) that work against the sending away of Earth from the Sun. From (1) we obtain v = 6,38 x 10^22 Hz, that is precisely a frequency in the share of spectre of gamma rays.

In the string theory the fundamental constituents of matter are one dimension objects (the strings), instead zero dimension points. For this reason string theory is able to avoid problems connected to presence of point particles. The *“universe lines” *of Standard Model are a “world sheet” composed by closed strings. So we can immagine these gravitational pipeflows with sections that are circular surfaces with diameter not lower than SP. The “string tension” is exactly the force that forbid the string closing in a point in violation of Heisemberg’s uncertainty principle. Then strings can vibrate in different ways, therefore with different frequencies. To each frequency is linked a well defined energy level and therefore the mass associated to the elementary particle of which the string is the fundamental constituent. With the increase of frequency grows energy, therefore particle become heavier. In the string theory each state corresponds to a kind of particle. For example to the first excitated level corresponds a particle with 0 mass and spin 1 : the photon. The second level is a particle with 0 mass and spin 2 : the graviton (the “famous” and never detected quantum medium particle of gravity force) and so that. However strings would have dimension with order of size around 10^-35 therefore, in the thruth, it’s impossibile to detect it directly. Now if a vibration would have to happen with a so tight lenght of wave, frequency would be more higher then 10^27 Hz, that is the highest frequency detected in the space by satellite Fermi LAT ; and gamma rays have a wave lenght at the most 10^-12 m. Then how can a photon, also if it’s an highly energetic one, to be made up by strings vibrating in this way ? Where goes to end all that surplus of energy ? An answer could be that part of vibration ways of the strings would be “autodestructive” by interference. As an alternative, part of the vibration ways would have to be in other dimensions to dissipate there the surplus of energy, with all the conceptual difficulties that this option takes on.

When a mass would break, in micro as in macro cosmos, this simmetry of undulating space, some trains of waves would start to propagate creating a pressure on the surface of the same mass.

For obvious reasons two masses would be pushed one towards the other. This one could be a possible explanation of*“Casimir’s effect”*,

*“zero point energy”,*cosmologic constant and the same nature of

*“dark energy”*that would be, in the thruth, a rippled

*"sea of light"*where pieces of matter drive away the one to the other because the waves constituting the same space, create continuously new space.

Stefano Gusman

## Nessun commento:

## Posta un commento